South Sudan is located in northeastern Africa, south of Sudan, with Uganda and Kenya to its south and Ethiopia to its east. The climate is hot with seasonal rainfall, primarily in the upland areas.
South Sudan holds one of the richest agricultural areas in Africa in the White Nile valley, which has extremely fertile soils and more-than-adequate water supplies. Currently, that region supports 10-20 million head of cattle. In addition, the White Nile River has sufficient flow to generate large quantities of hydroelectricity.
Running water is scarce, and the country depends largely on imports of goods, services and capital from the north. Despite these disadvantages, South Sudan does have abundant natural resources. South Sudan produces nearly three-fourths of the former Sudan’s total oil output of nearly a half million barrels per day.
Industry and infrastructure in landlocked South Sudan are severely underdeveloped and poverty is widespread, following several decades of civil war with the north. Subsistence agriculture provides a living for about 85 percent of the population.
Property rights in South Sudan are uncertain and supply- and demand-based commodity price structures are missing because markets are not well-organized.