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Letter from IFDC’s Leadership

A Call to Action

Again, the world finds itself in a time of crisis. Global energy and crop markets, already unstable from the pandemic, face catastrophic consequences due to Russia’s war in Ukraine. As a result, global fertilizer and food prices continue to rise. Many low- and middle-income countries dependent on food imports risk unprecedented undernourishment or even starvation due to a significant increase in basic commodity prices. For small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, decreased availability and affordability of fertilizers, specifically nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, are serious issues and will negatively impact staple food production. Many governments in Africa and Asia were caught off guard by the conflict, as high fertilizer prices at the end of last year were projected to ease. As noted by David M. Beasley, executive director of the World Food Programme, “There is no precedent even close to this since World War II.”1 

IFDC’s mission is as relevant as ever – to identify and scale sustainable solutions for soil and plant nutrition to achieve our vision of a food-secure and environmentally sustainable world through healthier soils and plants.  

Now, more than in decades, the need for fertilizer and food self-sufficiency, not to mention further fertilizer innovations to increase global nutrient use efficiency (NUE), is clearly evident. The reduced application of soil nutrients due to the pandemic and current war in Ukraine will further exacerbate the current degradation of 40% of the world’s soils. During the United Nations Food Systems Summit (UNFSS), soil was realized as a key means in “delivering the productive and sustained ecosystems needed to transform food systems to nature-, people and climate-positive.” Thus, the UNFSS Coalition of Action 4 Soil Health (CA4SH) was formed to convene “a multi-stakeholder coalition to facilitate the adoption and scaling of restoration practices that improve soil health in productive landscapes through investment and policy action.” As a member of this coalition, IFDC’s mission is as relevant as ever – to identify and scale sustainable solutions for soil and plant nutrition to achieve our vision of a food-secure and environmentally sustainable world through healthier soils and plants.  

The efforts you are supporting are more than research for its own sake.

In 2021, work began that would support the world as it came out of the pandemic and unexpectedly entered our current context. Dashboards and decision support tools were launched to provide accurate data of input demand, supply and use; programs assisted in harmonizing regional fertilizer regulations; climate-smart and yield improving technologies were introduced to farmers; and IFDC scientists validated next-generation fertilizer products. Clearly, IFDC’s work has real implications in a world that, as demonstrated throughout these last few years, is always one step away from catastrophic impacts on food systems. While many things may be out of our control, one thing we can do is continue pursuing solutions that support the most vulnerable and build their resilience against climatic and economic shocks.  

Business as usual cannot continue. Therefore, IFDC, as an international research-for-development organization, is embarking on two new initiatives that not only spearhead existing solutions but also will safeguard the future, which is a responsibility shared by all.  

First, plans are in the works to hold an African Fertilizer and Soil Health Summit in 2023, bringing together high-level stakeholders to reach an agreement on a 10-year action plan for sustainable food security growth in Africa. Sign up for updates here: https://ifdc.org/africa-fertilizer-summit-ii/. The event will be held under the auspices of the African Union Commission (AUC), which has mandated IFDC, the Regional Network of Agricultural Policy Research Institutes (ReNAPRI), and the Alliance for African Partnership (AAP) to support the preparation of an agenda in close collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa (FARA), the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), and many others. 

Second, it is well known in farming and fertilizer industry circles that truly innovative fertilizer products are needed to improve global soil health and make truly regenerative agriculture a reality. Most of the basic high-analysis fertilizers in use today were developed last century at the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) National Fertilizer Development Center (NFDC) in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, to combat the desertification of U.S. farmland during the 1930s. A sense of urgency drove the creation and funding of the NFDC, where over 1,000 scientists worked toward the singular goal of transforming U.S. agriculture from a dustbowl-ridden and failing industry into the powerhouse that it is today.

This sense of urgency must be renewed for global soil health, especially on the African continent, where old and weathered soils cannot support the agricultural growth the nation needs to keep pace with its growing population.

As such, IFDC is proposing the establishment of a Soil Health and Plant Nutrition Innovation Center to be housed at its campus, where labs, a pilot plant complex, and researchers are already in place to fast-track new solutions for ever-emerging issues. This hub will become the global focal point of soil health and plant nutrition innovations, in which scientists, innovators, entrepreneurs, industry, and visionaries can collaborate to realize the rapid development and delivery of “concept to crop” products and technologies that promote sustained soil health and environmentally sustainable productivity increases and contribute to global food security.  

We call to action those who committed their organizations to promoting soil health at the 2021 UNFSS to support these efforts. Those of us most privileged to be involved in solving these challenges must do so, and quickly. It is past time to save our earth and its inhabitants from the certain hardship and famine caused by the events of these past few years. 

We hope you will join us in our mission.

IFDC President and CEO Albin Hubscher
Albin Hubscher | President and CEO
Rudy Rabbinge
Rudy Rabbinge | Chair of the Board

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a graphic showing the organization's global reach
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Block
Institutional Results for 2021
Institutional Results
for 2021
icon of plants growing
9,0
Demonstration
Plots Established
icon of female farmer
408,0
Farmers Trained
(53% Women)
527,0
Farmers Applying
Good Agricultural Practices
419,0
Hectares Under
Good Agricultural Practices
0
Public-Private
Partnerships
4,0
Outreach Activities
302,0
Hectares Under
Climate-Adaptive
Technologies
14,0
New Jobs Created
8,0
Private Agri-Enterprises
Supported

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Research Highlights

The overall goal of IFDC research is to significantly boost the production of higher quality food using less land and water, improve the climate resilience of farming systems, and reduce the adverse environmental impacts associated with agriculture. Our research activities focus on improving nutrient use efficiency, reducing nutrient losses, and improving soil health through organic and inorganic sources and products to achieve sustained, balanced fertilization that ensures optimal economic returns for resource-constrained smallholder farmers globally.

During 2021, IFDC research efforts primarily focused on improving soil health, and thus yields, in sub-Saharan African countries. Activities supported improvement of the efficiency of inorganic and organic (microbial) fertilizers, including the use of local resources such as phosphate rock (PR), and implementation of integrated approaches involving decision support tools and soil maps and analyses to guide and validate research findings.

Enhanced Efficiency Fertilizers

Improving the fertilizer use efficiency of both nitrogen (N), currently low at 35-50%, and phosphorus (P), at less than 20%, is crucial for both economic and environmental reasons. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), in collaboration with The Fertilizer Institute (TFI), the National Corn Growers Association, The Nature Conservancy, and IFDC, launched the Next Gen Fertilizer Challenges in 2020. The agronomic and environmental competition investigating enhanced efficiency fertilizers (EEFs) from 14 global companies was conducted at IFDC in 2021. This was the first of its kind study in which 16 nitrogenous and 12 phosphatic fertilizers (EEFs and conventional) were evaluated for environmental and agronomic criteria under identical conditions using two soils from the Corn Belt (Minnesota and Iowa).

lab experiment test tubes

The following laboratory studies were conducted: (1) Quantification of Ammonia Volatilization; (2) Quantification of N Transformation using a Soil Incubation Technique; (3) P Release Characterization; (4) N and P Leaching, (5) Accelerated Nutrient Release Technique for Slow-Release Products; and (6) Quantification of Nitrous Oxide Emission. Yield and nutrient use efficiency were determined using sorghum as the test crop under greenhouse conditions. A complete evaluation of results from these crop trials will be made available in late 2022.

Balanced Fertilization

The Bureau for Resilience and Food Security (RFS)-funded Sustainable Opportunities for Improving Livelihoods with Soils (SOILS) Consortium implemented nutrient omission trials in the Amhara and Oromia regions of Ethiopia. The trials were conducted on 15 farmer-owned plots across Dembecha and Sekoru districts to evaluate crop response to different nutrient combinations and rates, with an emphasis on sulfur (S), zinc (Zn), and boron (B), in addition to N and P. Most of the farmlands in both districts were identified as deficient in N, P, S, Zn, and B by the Ethiopian Soil Information System (EthioSIS) soil fertility map. The trials were replicated three times per farmer plot. A total of 30 preplant soil samples were collected from two depths (0-20 cm and 20-60 cm). These samples were analyzed in both Ethiopian and IFDC headquarters laboratories to determine the accuracy of the national laboratory in Ethiopia and to identify any gaps for building its capacity in the future. The trials showed that both landscape elevation and fertilizer treatments affect maize yield significantly. As expected, response varied between sites. The results indicate:

  • S, Zn, and B addition increased yields by 27%-43%, depending on the location and slope position.
  • K addition did not increase yields in maize and significantly decreased yields at some locations and slope positions. Further research will be conducted in 2022 trials.
  • Maize yields continued to increase substantially with application of 150% of the recommended fertilizer rate. Higher rates may be justified.
graphs of maize trials

Improved Efficiency of Local Phosphate Rock

Greenhouse studies conducted by IFDC have consistently shown that activation of phosphate rock with water-soluble phosphate fertilizers that do not contain calcium, such as diammonium phosphate (DAP) or monoammonium phosphate (MAP), significantly improves its solubility, with low to medium reactivity and an average relative agronomic efficiency of more than 80%. With such promising results, IFDC, through SOILS Consortium activities in Niger, considered activation of Tahoua natural phosphate rock (TNP) to take advantage of locally available deposits by improving its overall agronomic efficiency for farm-level use. Activated TNP could be as effective as the water-soluble phosphate fertilizers currently available. To confirm this, IFDC and the National Agricultural Research Center in Niger (INRAN), in partnership with SOFFIA, a private mining firm based in Niger, conducted farmer-managed field trials using activated TNP for sorghum and cowpea in Doutchi (Kallon-Mota) and Gaya (Bengou, Tanda, and Tara) during the 2021 winter cropping season.

The results from the trials showed that activated TNP had a significantly positive effect on cowpea and sorghum yields; it was more effective than untreated TNP and just as effective as DAP. Activation thus improved the reactivity of the TNP, making it roughly equivalent to DAP in the fertilization of these crops. The trials will be repeated in the upcoming season and will elaborate on the economic aspect of activated TNP use, as a cost-effective alternative to DAP, by smallholder farmers in Niger.

Field research trials in Rwanda, comparing compounds (fertilizers with consistent nutrient concentrations in every granule) and blends (fertilizers containing mixtures of granules of varying nutrient compositions), showed no difference in yields, provided that the micronutrients (Zn, B, and copper [Cu]) were coated onto the blends rather than applied in granular form. This technique improves micronutrient distribution. 

A blending video was produced to aid those conducting experiments involving multi-nutrient fertilizers, including omission trials, in the creation of blends at the trial level. The 15-minute video incorporated IFDC’s  seven-plus years of experience in trial implementation and provided information on ingredient compatibility, rates and sources of micronutrients, and how to avoid toxic application levels. Coating micronutrients onto granular macronutrient fertilizers was also demonstrated. The blending procedures taught in the video can be directly transferred to a commercial blending facility.

Microbial Biofertilizers

Controlled experiments under laboratory and greenhouse conditions were conducted to evaluate Kula-N, a microbial biofertilizer produced by Kula Bio. The biofertilizer can work with any crop, fixing nitrogen from the air in the soil. Soil incubation and leaching studies have shown that nitrate-N leaching losses with Kula-N, whether applied alone or in combination with urea or calcium nitrate, are negligible. Preliminary greenhouse studies conducted in 2021 with sorghum as the test crop indicated that up to 50% of the urea-N requirement could be replaced by Kula-N with no significant difference in grain yield. The product has also been evaluated for its impact on nitrous oxide emission, and the results showed that application of 50% urea-N plus 50% Kula-N had an emission rate similar to 50% urea. Our initial studies have shown N losses are lower with Kula-N biofertilizer. Trials are currently underway with tomatoes.

Engineering and Pilot Plant Services

During 2021, the pilot plant and engineering teams executed projects for nine companies, representing five countries. The projects involved developing new fertilizer technologies, investigating various raw materials to lower production costs and methods to improve existing processes, and producing material for physical properties evaluation and field trials. 

Work Involving New Technologies

  • Lab and pilot plant work involving granulation of a mined ore and a nitrogen source.
  • Pilot plant granulation of a phosphate efficiency enhancer.
  • Pilot plant granulation of pH-modified NPK materials.

Work to Improve Existing Processes or Lower Production Costs

  • Pilot plant granulation of NPK fertilizer using a challenging acid blend.
  • Pilot plant investigation of binders for ammonium sulfate granulation.
  • Ongoing physical and chemical properties evaluation for customer-generated samples.

Work to Produce Material for Agronomic Studies

  • Pilot plant granulation of mined ore incorporated into NPK fertilizers.

Engineering and Technical Assistance

  • Engineering review of a high-pressure ammonia system.
  • Onsite technical assistance at a commercial NPK production plant to troubleshoot processing issues.

Several improvements were made to the pilot plant facilities, including an upgrade of the anhydrous ammonia system and replacement of the internal components of the rotary drum dryer and cooler in the large-scale plant. A multi-year improvement plan to refurbish existing assets and enhance capabilities was developed for the pilot plant, which will be executed in the next few years.


Success Story: Women’s Access to and Use of Fertilizers and Other Soil Fertility Management Practices

Studies show that female farmers are as efficient as male farmers, but they produce less because they control less land, use fewer inputs, and have less access to important services, such as knowledge and information sources and finance. During 2021, the SOILS Consortium engaged in field surveys to gain an understanding of factors associated with women’s access to and use of fertilizers and soil management practices in Uganda. There were obvious differences between male and female farmers in knowledge and information pathways on fertilizer products and application, as well as accessibility to agro-input dealers and other embedded services. These are affected by the gender roles of men and women, including socio-cultural factors, capital, resource control, and ownership. 

a female agrodealer displays fertilizer in her shop
An agro-dealer displays fertilizer in her shop.

Analyses of preliminary data indicate that women were much more inclined to use organic inputs generated from farm wastes and manure on their farms compared to men. This was more evident in home gardens versus cash crop farming systems. Women were constrained by mobility issues in traveling beyond 5 kilometers from their villages, restricting inorganic fertilizer use in general. Women farmers gained most of their knowledge on fertilizers and soil management practices from extension services and their participation in farmer groups; men gained knowledge from multiple sources, including extension services, agro-input shops, neighbors, and external training programs. The agro-input shops owned by women were more active in attracting women farmers in their communities. In general, access to credit by women farmers, with minimal to no collateral, was a major constraint to financing farming operations. Women farmers also expressed the need for more capacity building, exclusively for women, to understand the complexities involved in soil-water-nutrient management technologies. More in-depth analyses regarding gender dynamics in the supply of agro-inputs and implications on the access to and use of fertilizers among women farmers, along with their perceptions, will be carried out in 2022 for further policy inferences.


North and West Africa Women
North and West Africa

Benin | Burkina Faso | Cabo Verde | Cameroon | Chad | Côte d'Ivoire | Egypt | Gambia | Ghana
Guinea | Guinea-Bissau | Liberia | Mauritania | Niger | Nigeria | Senegal | Sierra Leone | Togo

In 1987, IFDC opened its first office in West Africa, located in Lomé, the capital city of Togo. IFDC now has offices in nine additional countries (Benin, Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt Ghana, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, and Senegal) and projects operating in all 10 countries plus Cabo Verde, Cameroon, Chad, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Mauritania.

2021 highlights of IFDC’s work in West Africa include developing fertilizer data management, visualization, and dissemination methods; increasing the adoption of efficient and targeted fertilizer techniques; supporting seed sector development and professionalization; building more inclusive farm-to-market agribusiness clusters; and enhancing interactions between scientific, financial, and government bodies.

portraite of racine the farmer

UDP: A Game Changer for Producers in Senegal

Racine Thierno Hanne, a 41-year-old farmer, has been producing rice and market gardening in Kodith Village, located in Podor Department of the Senegal River Valley since he started farming with his father at the age of 15. When his father became too old to farm, he left Hanne the family plot to encourage his son to stay in the village. 

Hanne dreamed of emigrating but found that he had everything he needed at his family farm.

North and West Africa Project Updates

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AFO TEST
AFRICAFERTILIZER.ORG 
Africa-wide (ongoing) 

Budget: U.S. $1,500,000 

Implementing Partners: International Fertilizer Association (IFA), Argus Media, Development Gateway, and the Nigerian private sector

picture of Mombasa Port

As the premier source for fertilizer statistics and information in Africa, the AfricaFertilizer.org (AFO) initiative has been collecting, processing, and publishing fertilizer production, trade, and consumption statistics for the main fertilizer markets in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Working with Development Gateway, AFO expanded its innovative dashboard for fertilizer data – Visualizing Insights on Fertilizer for African Agriculture – to include Ghana and Nigeria, in addition to Kenya. The project published the 2021 Register of Fertilizer Manufacturing and Processing Facilities, which monitors and maps operational fertilizer plants throughout SSA, excluding South Africa. AFO updated fertilizer data and statistics at 11 country validation workshops held in West and East Africa. Four quarterly editions of the Africa Fertilizer Watch were published to detail the fertilizer sector’s response to COVID-19. Twelve editions of the FertiNews e-newsletter were disseminated on fertilizer statistics, market comments, and general fertilizer news, and 11 country factsheets were distributed to partners and donors. In terms of partner engagement, the AFO team underwent training provided by IFA to build capacity in demand forecasting and gave presentations on the fertilizer situation to IFA members during the organization’s annual Strategic Forum.

Engrais
EnGRAIS
ECOWAS Member States and Chad and Mauritania (2018-2023) 

Budget: U.S. $14,000,000

Key Partners: Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), West African Economic and Monetary Union (UEMOA), West and Central African Council for Agricultural Research and Development (CORAF), and West African Fertilizer Association (WAFA)

Donor: USAID/West Africa Regional Mission

picture of Mombasa Port

While COVID-19 and soaring prices have negatively impacted the development of the fertilizer market in West Africa, the Feed the Future Enhancing Growth through Regional Agricultural Input Systems (EnGRAIS) project for West Africa has continued to support the public and private sector at the regional and national levels to address critical issues. The project has provided policy advice to key decision-makers, flagging risks so that supply shocks caused by global shocks can be better mitigated. The West Africa Fertilizer Business Information Guide was published to facilitate more relevant policy interventions and trade decisions. To increase productivity and promote good agricultural practices, the online Fertilizer and Seed Recommendations for West Africa Map has been expanded to offer 110 agricultural input packages, covering 15 crops in 11 countries, and 50 regional trainers will disseminate these to more than 600,000 producers. The project has advised ECOWAS, UEMOA, and several governments on how to respond to crises and to improve their public interventions and subsidy programs, including those in Burkina Faso, Ghana, and Niger. Through its assessment of 43 public and private laboratories, the EnGRAIS project is also helping to improve the quality control of fertilizers across the region.

FTF RRA
RRA
Nigeria (2019-2024)

Budget: U.S. $1,500,000

Implementing Partners: Mercy Corps leads the consortium that includes IFDC and Save the Children International

Donor: USAID

Speaker at RRA Workshop

The Feed the Future Nigeria Rural Resilience Activity (RRA) is facilitating economic recovery and growth in vulnerable, conflict-affected areas by promoting systemic change in market systems. IFDC is championing interventions aimed at improving farm practices for increased productivity and incomes for farmers through engagement with value chain actors, public/private extension service providers, and others by ensuring appropriate technologies and practices are mainstreamed into the primary activities of the respective partners. In 2021, the project successfully established 385 demonstration plots to promote the adoption of good agronomic practices; trained 23,450 smallholder farmers in Gombe, Adamawa, Borno, and Yobe states on enhanced productivity; and supported over 15,000 smallholder farmers in the Sahel, Sudan, and Guinea Savannah agroecologies to increase their yields in rice, cowpea, maize, and groundnut from the average 1.80 metric tons per hectare (mt/ha) to about 2.35 mt/ha. A total of 50 agrochemical safety ambassadors were trained by RRA to serve as private service providers. Smallholder farmers, women-led farmer associations, and Arewa Young Women Graduates formed or transitioned into 100 producer organizations, and their institutional capacity around group dynamics, leadership, and marketing for rural transformation was built.

FTF Dundel
DUNDËL SUUF
Senegal (2019-2023)

Budget: U.S. $8,500,000

Implementing Partners: Institut Sénégalais de Recherches Agricoles (ISRA), Agence Nationale pour le Conseil Agricole et Rural (ANCAR), Directorate of Agriculture, producer organizations, and the private sector

Donor: USAID

Diamanka Family

Feed the Future Senegal Dundël Suuf is being implemented in five agroecological zones of Senegal to address the use of inappropriate fertilizer formulas, lack of adoption of enhanced fertilizer technologies, poor enforcement of fertilizer quality control, and an inefficient subsidy program. The program supports improvement of soil fertility to increase agricultural productivity in the country. In its second year, 17 partners were selected to establish 3,053 fertilizer deep placement (FDP) and microdosing (MD) demonstration plots on 8,092 hectares (ha) for 87,682 beneficiaries, 900 of whom received agro-input packages (AIPs) for COVID-19 impact mitigation. A total of 122,644 participants (55% women and 15% youth) have been trained on FDP and MD application standards. To contribute to subsidy reform, 8,000 flyers on the smart fertilizer subsidy program guidelines were shared with partners, particularly decision-makers. 15 soil fertility maps are being generated for Senegal, the project’s flagship activity. A partnership with the University of Sine Saloum El-Hâdj Ibrahima Niass (USSEIN) was initiated, resulting in eight student internships.

FERARI
FERARI
Ghana (2019-2024)

Budget: U.S. $7,100,000

Implementing Partners: UM6P, OCP, Wageningen University & Research, University of Liège, University of Ghana, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, University for Development Studies, the Ministry of Food and Agriculture (Ghana), and other universities and research institutes

Donor: UM6P/OCP and institutional contributions

Speaker at RRA Workshop

The Fertilizer Research and Responsible Implementation (FERARI) project builds science-based approaches to site-specific fertilization for widespread adoption by Ghanaian farmers for improved food and nutrition security. In its first two years, 350 on-station and on-farm fertilizer response trials of maize, rice, and soybean were conducted and demonstrated to about 2,000 farmers. FERARI established the Fertilizer Platform for Ghana, which a private entity operating according to its own constitution. FERARI’s soil mapping expertise is being developed as a step toward an IT platform. Project activities support the Ghanaian government’s Planting for Food and Jobs program, embedding activities into national policy priorities to scale impacts. Activities are being conducted using a transdisciplinary approach, with 30 master’s-level students supervised by staff from nine universities in Ghana, Morocco, the Netherlands, and Belgium and the FERARI team. Ten master’s-level graduates from UM6P who were trained by the project are now employed in various international companies in North and West Africa. Five doctoral students from Wageningen and UM6P have conducted initial surveys and are completing course work at Wageningen University. Two postdocs at the University of Liège are developing and testing innovative nano-based fertilizers.

ISSD SAHEL
ISSD/SAHEL
Mali, Niger (2020-2024)

Budget: €11 million

Implementing Partners: Sasakawa Africa Association (SAA), International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT), and KIT Royal Tropical Institute

Donor: Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands

A nigerien woman waters her crops

2021 was devoted to the inception phase of the Integrated Seed Sector Development in the Sahel (ISSD/Sahel) project. Project partners produced a total of 10,723 kg of pre-basic seed (5,933 kg in Mali; 4,790 kg in Niger) and 48,706 kg of basic seed (16,688 kg in Mali; 32,018 kg in Niger), meeting 98% of the basic seed demand in the priority regions in Mali and 93% in Niger. The project strengthened the national production and supply system for high-quality seeds through business support to 10 seed companies and technical assistance to 70 seed cooperatives operating in the priority regions in Mali. As a result, 59,752 kg of certified seeds were produced by these cooperatives. Thirty-one community seed sales points were set up near end users. ISSD/Sahel collaborated with the Malian and Nigerien state institutes and private entrepreneurs to evaluate the major constraints to production, certification, and marketing of basic, pre-basic, and certified seeds. Results of this assessment were validated by stakeholders and led to identifying key steps for developing national road maps to address constraints, for which training and capacity building sessions were organized for the national seed regulatory bodies in Mali and Niger.

ACMA2
ACMA2
Benin (2017-2022)

Budget: €21.1 million

Implementing Partners: CARE International Benin-Togo and KIT

Donor: Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Benin

A nigerien woman waters her crops

The Communal Approach to the Agricultural Market in Benin - Phase 2 (ACMA2) program is being implemented in four departments of Benin: Ouémé, Plateau, Zou, and Collines. The program seeks to improve the food and nutritional security of rural populations in Benin by increasing the incomes of direct economic actors (men, women, and young people). To achieve this, three specific objectives have been defined: improve the agricultural productivity of producers and processors; increase the trade of agricultural products by the actors organized in agribusiness clusters; and reduce barriers to the trade of agricultural products within Benin and with neighboring countries, including Nigeria. ACMA2 has impacted nearly 93,400 farmers, processors, and traders (43% men, 57% women, and 33% young people). The program has made good agricultural practices and strategic information accessible on its Information and Communications Technology for Agriculture (ICT4Ag) platform, and nearly 10,900 people (47.35% women and 46.72% young people) have subscribed on a fee-for-service basis. Sales of more than 83,300 mt of agricultural products have been recorded at a value of almost U.S. $31.5 million. Loans of more than U.S. $6.3 million, including nearly U.S. $300,000 through digital finance, have been made available to stakeholders to support their production, processing, and marketing activities.

PARSEN
PARSEN
Niger (2018-2022)

Budget: U.S. $3,899,854

Donor: Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC)/Millennium Challenge Account (MCA)-Niger

Bags of UREA and NPK fertilizer

IFDC is providing technical assistance for the successful implementation of Niger’s Fertilizer Sector Reform Plan, which is expected to significantly improve the use of fertilizers in agriculture through better involvement of the private sector. In 2021, the project continued to support the reform bodies responsible for monitoring the fertilizer market. Activities also facilitated the dissemination of regulatory texts governing the trade of fertilizers and operationalization of the Common Fertilizer Fund. The project continued to build the capacity of members of the Association of Fertilizer Importers and Distributors (ANIDE) toward their professionalization and to strengthen their relationship with fertilizer users, the banking/financial system, and the West African Fertilizer Association. In addition, support was provided to start a pilot e-voucher targeted fertilizer subsidy program, financed by MCA-Niger, which will later be expanded to cover the eight regions of the country, and to strengthen the capacity of the Directorate of the Ministry of Agriculture in charge of monitoring and quality control of fertilizers. Two booklets were published by the project: a collection of legislative and regulatory texts on fertilizers and a directory of private fertilizer suppliers in Niger.

SAPEP
SAPEP
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Mali, and Niger (2015-2024)

Budget: U.S. $7,315,000

Donor: Islamic Development Bank

BURKINA_SAPEP_Training2

The Smallholder Agricultural Productivity Enhancement Program (SAPEP) is designed to provide proven, appropriate agricultural technologies to improve the living standards of 500,000 households. Specific outcomes of the program include increased use of effective integrated soil fertility management (ISFM) technologies, improved access to seed, improved access to financial services, and increased access to output markets. The program aims to increase yield levels of major crops by at least 70% and farmer income by at least 20%. In 2021, additional funding was received to coordinate the evaluation of maize, groundnut, soybean, cassava, cowpea, and cover crop germplasm by University of Calavi scientists and expand the development of the inland valley for rice production in Benin. In Cameroon, an inventory credit system was implemented, allowing farmers to purchase fertilizers and improved seed and enabling them to sell their products at a higher price. In Mali, construction began on a modern soil-plant-water analysis laboratory. Additionally, 25 agribusiness centers were built and post-harvest seed treatment equipment was acquired. SAPEP’s high level of performance led to four additional projects being granted by the Islamic Development Bank on the rice value chain in Niger, rice and other crop value chains in Guinea, and integrated rural development in Guinea.

TAAT
TAAT – SFE
Benin, Burkina Faso, Ghana, Mali, Nigeria, and Tanzania (2018-2021)

Budget: U.S. $1,841,109

Lead Implementer: International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA)

Donor: African Development Bank

BURKINA_SAPEP_Training2

IFDC leads the Technologies for African Agricultural Transformation (TAAT) Soil Fertility Enabler (SFE), which contributes to increasing productivity in Africa through deployment of proven productivity-enhancing technologies in support of the seven TAAT commodity compacts in soil fertility management and facilitation of access to agro-inputs. The interventions are achieved through three principal mechanisms: creation of an enabling environment for dissemination of technologies, strengthening of technology delivery infrastructure, and deployment of effective fertilizer technologies. During the past three years, the SFE, with a network of 33 partners including the national agricultural research system and the private sector, registered 2,451 agro-input dealers in the target countries and established an electronic platform in Burkina Faso that links farmers to agro-input dealers to facilitate last-mile delivery of fertilizers. In addition, the SFE established 888 demonstration plots on fertilizer technologies, including urea deep placement, microdosing, and integrated soil fertility management (ISFM); trained 604 stakeholders in ISFM and related skills; produced 62 soil fertility maps to guide fertilizer recommendations; tested 13 fertilizers formulas in farmers’ fields; and distributed 1,130 mini-kits (seed + fertilizer) to farmers for their own testing of fertilizer microdosing.

2SCALE
2SCALE
Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, South Sudan (2019-2023)

Budget: €150,000,000 (€50,000,000 through public funding)

Implementing Partners: SNV, Bopinc

Donor: DGIS and private sector and financial institution co-investment

BURKINA_SAPEP_Training2

Toward Sustainable Clusters in Agribusiness through Learning in Entrepreneurship (2SCALE) is an incubator and accelerator program that manages a portfolio of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for inclusive business in agri-food sectors and industries across Africa. 2SCALE offers a range of support services to its business champions (farmer groups or small and medium enterprises [SMEs]) and partners, enabling them to produce, transform, and supply quality food products. These products go to local and regional markets, including to base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) consumers. 2SCALE manages a portfolio of 62 active business partnerships in 10 countries. Pilot partnerships began in 2021 in Egypt and South Sudan, countries new to the program. These pilots will determine how inclusive and commercially viable business models can be promoted in areas with a favorable business environment and those where risks and uncertainties are higher. 2SCALE saw considerable growth in BoP consumers included in the food system from 432,652 in 2020 to 956,517 in 2021, attaining 95.7% of its target. The project also tripled its reach during the year to include 419,819 smallholder farmers who have improved their productivity and gained market access. Due to disruptions caused by the pandemic, 50 SMEs involved in 2SCALE partnerships participated in the program’s second crowdfunding campaign, raising about $283,590 within one month to meet their working capital needs.

TRIMING
TRIMING
Nigeria (2019-2022)

Budget: U.S. $840,000

Implementing Partners: National Agriculture Extension and Research Liaison Services (NAERLS) and Agricultural Development Programs in Jigawa, Kano, Sokoto, and Zamfara states

Donor: World Bank, through the TRIMING project under the Federal Ministry of Water Resources in Nigeria

BURKINA_SAPEP_Training2

Transforming Irrigation Management in Nigeria (TRIMING) Extension Service Supervision assists farmers in Nigeria’s northern irrigation schemes to increase their agricultural productivity and has now reached 32,114 farmers in selected states. These farmers have been trained through Farmer Field Business Schools (FFBSs) to boost their productivity. IFDC employs a collaborative approach to link these farmers to input and output markets, as well as financial institutions, strengthening their capacities across the value chain. Nine productivity-enhancing technologies have been promoted to farmers, with a particular focus on fertilizer deep placement (FDP). Farmers using this technology have increased their rice yields by more than 50% to 5-8 mt/ha in various project intervention sites. Understanding the critical role that the Agricultural Development Programs (ADPs) play in ensuring sustainability of project efforts, IFDC has worked continuously to supervise and strengthen the institution’s capacities in various areas, including delivery of farmer extension and use of information and communication technology.

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East Africa Landscape
East and Southern Africa

Burundi | Ethiopia | Kenya | Mozambique | South Sudan | Uganda

IFDC has worked in East and Southern Africa since the early 1990s and established a regional office in Nairobi, Kenya, in 2009. Today, with offices in Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, South Sudan, and Uganda and projects underway in all six countries, IFDC is helping develop, strengthen, and innovate new paths forward for the smallholder farmers and traders, transporters, banks, and policymakers who work together to put food security first across the region.

2021 highlights of IFDC’s work in the region include a focus on strengthening access to improved, quality seed for smallholder farmers, teaching climate-smart practices, and enhancing the participation of women and youth in agricultural market systems.

Wairegi's Biogas System

Transforming Kenya’s Food Basket: Joshua Wairegi’s Story

Soil acidity, a lack of certified seed, and farming inefficiencies prevent many Kenyan farmers from realizing their potential. After attending a PCB potato farmer training, Joshua Wairegi has consistently scaled up his farming. He cultivates potatoes on 4 acres and saw a significant yield increase at harvest.

Wairegi and his farmer group now understand that fertilizer, if used properly, is for everyone. With the improved profits from potatoes and dairy farming, Wairegi was able to start building a family home, and his community is reclaiming their title as the food basket of Kenya.

East and Southern Africa Project Updates

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A3-SEED
A3-SEED
South Sudan (2020-2025)

Budget: U.S. $10 million

Implementing Partner: KIT Royal Tropical Institute

Donor: Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands (EKN) in Juba

Michael Smet and Josephine Lagu

Accelerating Agriculture and Agribusiness in South Sudan (A3-SEED) supports the commercialization of the seed sector in South Sudan to transition from humanitarian relief to a commercial, sustainable, and adaptive agriculture sector. In 2021, A3-SEED signed agreements with 10 seed companies that will form the critical private sector to drive the quality seed production, increasing availability down to the last mile. The project successfully completed a baseline study, interviewing more than 2,000 respondents in target areas; this information was used to inform project design and build synergies with existing EKN funded projects. A soil health study involving a triangulated sampling approach was also conducted, and the results will facilitate the design of extension modules for farmers. In addition, the project is supporting the Seed Trade Association of South Sudan (STASS) in its discussions with relief agencies to prioritize local seed procurement and with the government to establish formal monitoring and certification of seed quality. A3-SEED aims to improve the livelihoods of more than 100,000 farming households, facilitate the development of 100 agro-dealers and 400 new businesses owned or managed by women and youth, and ensure over 42,000 ha of farmland is under agroecological production and resilient to shocks and that 50% of relief seed is procured locally.

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AFO TEST
AFRICAFERTILIZER.ORG 
Africa-wide (ongoing) 

Budget: U.S. $1,500,000 

Implementing Partners: International Fertilizer Association (IFA), Argus Media, Development Gateway, and the Nigerian private sector

picture of Mombasa Port

As the premier source for fertilizer statistics and information in Africa, the AfricaFertilizer.org (AFO) initiative has been collecting, processing, and publishing fertilizer production, trade, and consumption statistics for the main fertilizer markets in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Working with Development Gateway, AFO expanded its innovative dashboard for fertilizer data – Visualizing Insights on Fertilizer for African Agriculture – to include Ghana and Nigeria, in addition to Kenya. The project published the 2021 Register of Fertilizer Manufacturing and Processing Facilities, which monitors and maps operational fertilizer plants throughout SSA, excluding South Africa. AFO updated fertilizer data and statistics at 11 country validation workshops held in West and East Africa. Four quarterly editions of the Africa Fertilizer Watch were published to detail the fertilizer sector’s response to COVID-19. Twelve editions of the FertiNews e-newsletter were disseminated on fertilizer statistics, market comments, and general fertilizer news, and 11 country factsheets were distributed to partners and donors. In terms of partner engagement, the AFO team underwent training provided by IFA to build capacity in demand forecasting and gave presentations on the fertilizer situation to IFA members during the organization’s annual Strategic Forum.

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PCB
PCB
Kenya (2018-2022)

Budget: €2.3 million (€1 million cost share from partners)

Implementing Partners: IPM Potato Group, Kenya Plant Health Inspectorate Services, Kevian Kenya Limited, Kirinyaga Seed Limited, National Potato Council of Kenya, Nyandarua County Government, Sustainable Food Systems Ireland, and Teagasc

Donor: Irish Aid, Embassy of Ireland in Kenya

Michael Smet and Josephine Lagu

The Potato Value Chain Capacity Building (PCB) Project will improve the livelihoods of smallholder farmers and families living within Nyandarua County, Kenya. The market for potatoes in the area is unstructured and mostly patronized by middlemen, who often leave farmers at a crossroads between quitting or progressing with their business. PCB uses the Farmer Field Business School model to promote the adoption of new technologies, including certified potato seed, consistent use of good agricultural practices, and improved farm management skills. The project has enabled about 900 smallholder farmers to reap the benefits of potato farming as a business by linking them with buyers and establishing mutual relationships. Through contract farming, approximately 250 mt of potato, worth nearly U.S. $50,000, was delivered to processing markets. In 2021, the project reached 1,929 farmers (66% female) directly and another 2,255 indirectly through field days. PCB has trained over 1,900 smallholder farmers on proper feeding of infants, integration of kitchen gardening practices, and food diversification strategies. Relationships established by the project with both international and local private and public sector partners have resulted in numerous commitments of technical support and other critical infrastructure investments. PCB mobilized over €300,000 in 2021 from the public and private sectors.

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PSSD
PSSD
Burundi (2018-2022)

Budget: €7,761,600

Implementing Partner: KIT Royal Tropical Institute

Donor: Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Burundi

Joselyne with her family in her field harvesting potatoes

The Private Seed Sector Development (PSSD) project works with private and public sector partners to promote the development of a private sector-led seed industry that can provide farmers in Burundi with sustainable access to high-quality seed and agricultural advisory services. In 2021, 97,394 smallholder farmers purchased seed from PSSD partners, a ninefold increase from 2019. Thus, 205,499 producers, or about 11.8% of the farm households in Burundi, have purchased seed from PSSD partners since project inception. About 1,958 mt of seed was sold in 2021, an increase of 37.3% compared to 2020, for a total of 3,742 mt thus far. PSSD provided training on good agricultural practices to 64,180 smallholder farmers, 45% of whom were women, for a total of 122,577 smallholder farmers since the beginning of the project. More than 5,700 demonstration fields were installed, for a total of 17,339 during the life of the project. Of all clients, 81,407 have been women, representing 39% of open-pollinated maize seed clients, 42% of all hybrid maize seed clients, 43% of all bean seed clients, and 38% of all potato seed clients.

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PNSP
PNSP
Uganda (2017-2022)

Budget: €1,810,500

Implementing Partners: Uganda National Potato Platform and the National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO)

Donor: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ)

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Promotion of Nutrition-Sensitive Potato Value Chains in East Africa (PNSP) has increased the productivity and associated incomes of 6,996 smallholder potato farmers (67% female) and improved nutrition through dietary diversification for 14,340 farmers (71% female) in Eastern Uganda. By promoting good agricultural practices, potato yields have increased from 12.5 mt/ha at baseline to 18.5 mt/ha in 2021. Due to the shortage of quality seed in the Mount Elgon highlands, the project supported four private seed producer associations to acquire 5,900 potato plantlets to yield a total of 61,174 mini-tubers. Production of around 29 mt of pre-basic seed potato is projected by June 2022, which will then be multiplied into basic seed. Through hands-on training in establishing home kitchen gardens, cooking demonstrations, community dialogues, and radio messaging, knowledge of and practices around nutrition have improved, with the Individual Dietary Diversity Score increasing from 3.1 (out of 9) food groups at baseline to 5.9 in 2021.

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REACH-Uganda
REACH-Uganda
Uganda (2016-2021)

Budget: €13,286,700

Implementing Partners: Cardno Emerging Markets and KIT Royal Tropical Institute

Donor: Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Uganda

UGANDA_REACH_Charles-Byarugaba_IMG_6572

By the end of 2021, Resilient Efficient Agribusiness Chains in Uganda (REACH-Uganda) had been implemented in 20 districts in Southwestern and Eastern Uganda, targeting the improvement of potato and rice market systems. Through the market system development approach, the project improved market engagement for farmers, strengthened household resilience, and deepened the availability of agricultural support services and training. As a result, at the farmer level, yields increased from 3.07 to 4.15 mt per acre (35%) in potato and from 0.6 mt to 1.36 mt per acre (126%) in rice. Net income increased from U.S. $711 to $1,279 per acre for potato farmers and from U.S. $338 to $559 per acre for rice farmers. Additional income of U.S. $4.5 million was generated for 11,763 farmers through 14 private sector partnerships. The total additional income for farmers from partnerships signed during the project is projected to reach U.S. $27 million by 2024. Household food security improved from 55% to 62% due to improvements in yield, income, and crop diversification. In addition, 352 full-time jobs were created. By 2024, REACH-facilitated agribusiness linkages between farmers and 26 private sector firms, including banks, will have assisted 63,139 farmers and created 847 full-time jobs.

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PAGRIS
PAGRIS
Burundi (2020-2024)

Budget: €8.8 million

Implementing Partners: Wageningen Environmental Research and Twitezimbere

Donor: Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in Burundi

UGANDA_REACH_Charles-Byarugaba_IMG_6572

The Soil Fertility Stewardship Project (PAGRIS) seeks to achieve ecologically sustainable land management. At the end of its second year, the project had facilitated 294 research farmers to establish plots to demonstrate good agricultural practices and innovations based on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM). The research farmers have been trained to co-create an integrated farming plan and test and implement land stewardship strategies and practices using the Participatory Learning and Action (PLA) approach. The demonstration plots aim to stimulate communities within 215 watersheds to replicate practices to tackle erosion and restore soil fertility. The 14,237 households within these watersheds have been taught to develop a plan to improve landscape management, reach stewardship agreements, and implement integrated practices through collective community action, covering a total of 15,542 ha. At the institutional level, PAGRIS has supported national research institutes on elaborating national soil fertility maps and studying the feasibility of improving the use of dolomite in Burundi to tackle soil acidity. PAGRIS has also helped the Soil Fertilization Directorate (DFS) improve the strategic and technical quality of fertilizers produced and distributed in Burundi through the National Fertilizer Subsidy Program (PNSEB).

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TEAMS
TEAMS
Mozambique (2021-2022)

Budget: U.S. $8 million

Implementing Partners: United Purpose, Associação Kwaedza Simukai Manica (AKSM), and the African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP)

Donor: Embassy of Sweden

UGANDA_REACH_Charles-Byarugaba_IMG_6572

Transfer Efficient Agricultural Technologies Through Market Systems (TEAMS), the follow-on to the Food Security through Climate Adaptation and Resilience (FAR)-Sofala project, aims to increase food availability and access for 15,500 farmers in Mozambique, with a focus on women’s economic empowerment in agriculture (60% women). The program seeks to aid the development of market systems by supporting farmers, agro-dealers, input suppliers, and service providers to establish a continuous supply network of inputs and outputs and to help farmers increase resilience, productivity, and production using climate-smart agriculture. A total of 15,418 farmers (62% women) benefited from interventions to improve productivity by creating access to climate-smart agricultural inputs and increasing resilience to climate shocks by intensifying vegetable production through the promotion of cost-effective and environmentally friendly irrigation systems. As a result, 7,832 producers (57% women) who adopted climate-smart agricultural practices and inputs were able to double their productivity in various vegetable crops, increasing their income from U.S. $0.38 to U.S. $1.10 per day. Furthermore, in partnership with the private sector, the program has been facilitating sustainable market linkages between large input suppliers and local agro-dealers, supporting local agro-dealers in developing the capacity to manage their business, and facilitating the construction of improved stores that are resilient to climate change.

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2SCALE
2SCALE
Burkina Faso, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Niger, Nigeria, South Sudan (2019-2023)

Budget: €150,000,000 (€50,000,000 through public funding)

Implementing Partners: SNV, Bopinc

Donor: DGIS and private sector and financial institution co-investment

BURKINA_SAPEP_Training2

Toward Sustainable Clusters in Agribusiness through Learning in Entrepreneurship (2SCALE) is an incubator and accelerator program that manages a portfolio of public-private partnerships (PPPs) for inclusive business in agri-food sectors and industries across Africa. 2SCALE offers a range of support services to its business champions (farmer groups or small and medium enterprises [SMEs]) and partners, enabling them to produce, transform, and supply quality food products. These products go to local and regional markets, including to base-of-the-pyramid (BoP) consumers. 2SCALE manages a portfolio of 62 active business partnerships in 10 countries. Pilot partnerships began in 2021 in Egypt and South Sudan, countries new to the program. These pilots will determine how inclusive and commercially viable business models can be promoted in areas with a favorable business environment and those where risks and uncertainties are higher. 2SCALE saw considerable growth in BoP consumers included in the food system from 432,652 in 2020 to 956,517 in 2021, attaining 95.7% of its target. The project also tripled its reach during the year to include 419,819 smallholder farmers who have improved their productivity and gained market access. Due to disruptions caused by the pandemic, 50 SMEs involved in 2SCALE partnerships participated in the program’s second crowdfunding campaign, raising about $283,590 within one month to meet their working capital needs.

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Bangladesh CARRYING RICE
Asia

India | Nepal

IFDC has worked in Asia since 1977, when the organization’s first field trials of fertilizer deep placement (FDP) were conducted in Bangladesh. In 1992, its Asia Division was established, with a permanent office opened in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Since then, IFDC has implemented projects in 30 countries across the continent. In 2020, IFDC opened its first office in India, located in Hyderabad.

2021 saw IFDC projects active in India’s Telangana State and in Nepal. These projects worked to improve fertilizer availability, share techniques to improve fertilizer efficiency, conduct soil mapping to identify nutrient requirements, and engage women and youth in the agriculture sector.

Nepalese female farmer working in field

Managing Soil Acidity for Food Security

Management of soil acidity is crucial for improving soil health and crop productivity. Crop productivity is relatively low in Nepal compared to other countries in south Asia. Without managing soil acidity, farmers may not be able to achieve potential yields even after applying the right amount of fertilizers. Dr. Yam Gaihre, Soil Scientist, IFDC, and Dr. Shree Prasad Vista, Chief, National Soil Science Research Centre (NSSRC), Nepal Agricultural Research Council, weigh in on the issues.

Asia Project Updates

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AFI
AFI
India (2019-2023)

Budget: U.S. $2.5 million

Hosting Organization: International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT)

Donor: Walmart Foundation

Indian farmer cutting the seedling

Accelerating Farm Incomes (AFI) is helping peri-urban farmers of Telangana State take advantage of growing consumer demand for fresh produce in the Hyderabad metropolitan area. In 2021, emphasis was placed on disseminating good agricultural practices (GAPs). Diffusion of improved technologies requires attention to creating awareness and enhancing knowledge, as well as stimulation of entrepreneurial investment in quality agro-input supply. The project strengthened farmer-market linkages for timely sales and better prices, with a particular focus on gender and youth, by providing training and advisory services and disseminating innovations for enhancing the efficiency of natural resources, mechanization, quality seed use, and post-harvest loss reduction in rice, maize, pulses, and vegetable cropping systems. Despite a severe second wave of COVID-19 in 2021 that impacted AFI staff and participants, the project trained 1,647 farmers in GAPs, leading to their implementation on 1,565 hectares. The project adopted digital modes to share knowledge on GAPs and partnered with a leading private company to benefit farmers. Two value chain actor conferences were held to ensure farmer-market linkages, connecting 102 representatives to meet and discuss needs and opportunities.

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NSAF
NSAF
Nepal (2016-2022)

Budget: U.S. $1,143,000

Lead Implementing Partner: International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)

Donor: USAID

Indian farmer cutting the seedling

IFDC is implementing fertilizer sector-related activities on the Feed the Future Nepal Seed and Fertilizer (NSAF) Project in collaboration with public and private sector actors, including the Nepal Agricultural Research Council (NARC), Ministry of Agriculture and Livestock Development (MoALD), Department of Agriculture, Fertilizer Association of Nepal (FAN), and agro-input companies. The project is working on rice, maize, lentil, onion, cauliflower, and tomato in 26 districts, consisting of 21 Feed the Future Zone of Influence districts in Nepal and five earthquake-affected districts in Bagmati Province. NSAF partnered with the NARC National Soil Science Research Center (NSSRC) to prepare and launch digital soil maps of Nepal, a first for South Asia. The project also prepared the Road Map on Balanced Fertilization in Nepal, which includes technical and financial analysis of the fertilizer blending activity. NSAF designed training materials on integrated soil fertility management (ISFM), covering the 4Rs of nutrient stewardship (right source, right rate, right time, and right place) and organic matter in Nepalese soils. In addition, the capacity of FAN was strengthened by the project to improve the fertilizer distribution system in Nepal.

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Publications and Presentations

Abdallah, A., C.M. Parihar, S. Patra, H.S. Nayak, Y.S. Saharawat, U. Singh, M.D. Parihar, S.K. Kakraliya, I.N. Nassar, F. Ugolini, W. Zohir, and M.M. Shalaby. 2021. “Critical Evaluation of Functional Aspects of Evaporation Barriers through Environmental and Economics Lens for Evaporation Suppression – A Review on Milestones from Improved Technologies,” Science of the Total Environment, 788:147800. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.147800

Adzawla, W., I.N. Kissiedu, E. Martey, P.M. Etwire, W.K. Atakora, A. Gouzaye, and P.S. Bindraban. 2021. “Does Fertilizer Use Increase Farmer’s Maize Yield in Ghana?” IFDC FERARI Policy Brief No. 9.

Adzawla, W., I.N. Kissiedu, E. Martey, P.M. Etwire, W.K. Atakora, A. Gouzaye, and P.S. Bindraban. 2021. “Fertilizer Use and Yields of Maize, Rice, and Soybean Farmers in Ghana,” IFDC FERARI Policy Brief No. 6.

Adzawla, W., I.N. Kissiedu, E. Martey, P.M. Etwire, W.K. Atakora, A. Gouzaye, and P.S. Bindraban. 2021. “Poverty and Food and Nutritional Security Among Farm Households in Ghana,” IFDC FERARI Policy Brief No. 5.

Adzawla, William, I.N. Kissiedu, Edward Martey and Prince M. Etwire, Williams K. Atakora, Amadou Gouzaye, and P.S. Bindraban. 2021. “Baseline Study on Fertilizer Usage and Food/Nutrition Security in Sudan Savannah, Guinea Savannah, and Transitional Zones of Ghana,” IFDC FERARI Research Report No. 5.

Adzawla, William, Williams K. Atakora, Amadou Gouzaye, and Prem S. Bindraban, 2021. “Crop Yield and Fertilizer use Among Farmers in Guinea Savannah and Transition Zones of Ghana,” IFDC FERARI Research Report No. 6.

Adzawla, William, Williams K. Atakora, Isaac N. Kisseidu, Edward Martey, Prince M. Etwire, Amadou Gouzaye, and Prem S. Bindraban. 2021. “Characterization of Farmers and the Effect of Fertilization on Maize Yields in the Guinea Savannah, Sudan Savannah, and Transitional Agroecological Zones of Ghana,” EFB Bioeconomy Journal. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bioeco.2021.100019

Anderson, J.R., R. Birner, L. Nagarajan, A. Naseem, and C.E. Pray. 2021. “Private Agricultural R&D: Do the Poor Benefit?” Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, 19(1):3-14. https://www.degruyter.com/journal/key/JAFIO/19/1/html

Baral, B.R., K.R. Pande, Y. Gaihre, K.R. Baral, S.K. Sah, Y.B. Thapa, and U. Singh. 2021. “Real-Time Nitrogen Management Using Decision Support-Tools Increases Nitrogen Use Efficiency of Rice,” Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 119(3):355-368. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10705-021-10129-6  

Bindraban, P.S., R. Groot, and U. Singh. 2021. “Soil Nutrients: The Key to Meeting the Triple Global Challenge of Food and Nutrition Security, Climate, and Biodiversity,” Fertilizer Focus, 38(4), July/August 2021.

Bregaglio, S., L. Willocquet, K.C. Kersebaum, R. Ferrise, T. Stella, T.B. Ferreira, W. Pavan, S. Asseng, and S. Savary. 2021. “Comparing Process-Based Wheat Growth Models in Their Simulation of Yield Losses Caused by Plant Diseases,” Field Crops Research, 265:108108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fcr.2021.108108

Demiss, M., J. Sanabria, and U. Singh. 2021. “Long-Run Spatial and Temporal Yield Variability Analysis of Three Major Crops Affected by Fertilizer Use and Rainfall in Ethiopia over the Past 15 Years (2004/05-2018/19),” Sustainable Agriculture Research, 10(3). https://doi.org/10.5539/sar.v10n3p1

Dhakal, K., B.R. Baral, K.R. Pokhrel, N.R., Pandit, Y.K. Gaihre, and S.P. Vista. 2021. “Optimizing N Rate for Increasing Yield and Profits of Rainfed Maize Grown under Sandy Loam Soil,” Nitrogen, 2:359-377. https://doi.org/10.3390/nitrogen2030025

Diene, P.P., P.S. Bindraban, A. Laamari, W. Adzawla , Y. Iddrisu, and W.K. Atakora. 2021. “Analysing Power Dynamics and Scaling Potential of the Proposed Ghana Fertilizer Platform,” IFDC FERARI Policy Brief No. 8.

Diene, P.P., P.S. Bindraban, A. Laamari, William Adzawla, Y. Iddrisu, and W.K. Atakora. 2021. “Power Dynamics and Scaling Potential of the Proposed Ghana Fertilizer Platform,” IFDC FERARI Research Report No. 8.

Dixon, J.M, J. Weerahewa, J. Hellin, M.F. Rola-Rubzen, J. Huang, S. Kumar, A. Das, M.E. Qureshi, T.J. Krupnik, K. Shideed, M.L. Jat, P.V. Vara-Prasad, S. Yadav, A. Irshad, A. Asanaliev, A. Abugalieva, A. Karimov, B. Bhattarai, C.Q. Balgos, F. Benu, H. Ehara, K/ Pant, J.M.P. Sarmiento, J.C. Newby, J. Pretty, H.Tokuda, H. Weyerhaeuser, L.N. Digal, L.Li, M.A.R. Sarkar, M.Z. Abedin, P. Schreinemachers, Q. Grafton, R.C. Sharma, S. Saidzoda, S. Lopez-Ridaura, S. Coffey, S.P. Kam, S.S. Win, S. Praneetvatakul, T. Maraseni, V. Touch, W. Liang, Y.S. Saharawat, and J. Timsina. 2021. “Response and Resilience of Asian Agrifood Systems to COVID-19: An Assessment Across Twenty-Five Countries and Four Regional Farming and Food Systems,” Agricultural Systems, 193:103168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agsy.2021.103168

Dzatse, A.A., J. Kugbe, W. Adzawla, W. Atakora, P.S. Bindraban. 2021. “Productivity of Maize and Soybean as Affected by Sulfur and Primary Nutrients on a Feralic Lixisol in Northern Ghana,” IFDC FERARI Research Note 4.

Fernandes, J.M., E.M. del Ponte, J.P. Ascari, T.J. Krupnik, W. Pavan, F. Vargas, and T. Berton. 2021. “Towards an Early Warning System for Wheat Blast: Epidemiological Basis and Model Development,” https://doi.org/10.19103/as.2021.0092.22

Fuentes, B., A.J. Ashworth, M. Ngunjiri, and P. Owens. 2021. “Mapping Soil Properties to Advance the State of Spatial Soil Information for Greater Food Security on US Tribal Lands,” Frontiers in Soil Science. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoil.2021.695386

Gaihre, Y., U. Singh, W. Bible, J. Fugice, and J. Sanabria. 2020. “Mitigating N2O and NO Emissions from Direct-Seeded Rice with Nitrification Inhibitor and Urea Deep Placement,” Rice Science, 27(5):434-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rsci.2020.03.005

Hakimi, S.S., R. Raina, and Y.S. Saharawat. 2021. “Impact of Evaporative Cooling Technology and Post-Harvest Treatments on Shelf Life and Quality of Tomato of Two Different Harvesting Stages (Solanum Lycopersicum var. Pearson),” Journal of Ecoscience and Plant Revolution, 2(1):8-16. DOI 10.37357/1068/jser.2.1.02

Iddrisu, Y., P.S. Bindraban, W.K. Atakora, B.T. Aremu, P. Annequin, K. Kouassi, A. Fernando, R. Wheeler, and F. Gyasi. 2021. “The Ghana Fertilizer Platform Study,” IFDC FERARI Research Report No. 3.

Ippolito, T.A., J. E. Herrick, E. L. Dossa, M. Garba, M. Ouattara, U. Singh, Z.P. Stewart, P.V.V. Prasad, I.A. Oumarou, and J.C. Neff. 2021. “A Comparison of Approaches to Regional Land-Use Capability Analysis for Agricultural Land Planning,” Land, 10(5):458. https://doi.org/10.3390/land10050458

Jing, Q., B. McConkey, B. Qian, Ward Smith, Brian Grant, Jiali Shang, J. Liu, P.S. Bindraban, and M. St. Luce. 2021. “Assessing Water Management Effects on Spring Wheat Yield in the Canadian Prairies using DSSAT Wheat Models,” Agricultural Water Management, 244(2021):106591. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2020.106591

Katyal, J.C., U. Srivastava, B. Mal, and Y.S. Saharawat. 2021. “Proceedings and Recommendations: Regenerative Agriculture for Soil Health, Food and Environmental Security,” Trust for Advancement of Agricultural Sciences (TAAS).

Kouame, K.K.A., P.S. Bindraban, I.N. Kissiedu, K. El Mejahed, and W.K. Atakora. 2021. “Evaluating and Geospatial Analysis of Variability in Maize Yield Response to Fertilizer (NPK) Using Modeling in Ghana,” IFDC FERARI Research Report No 7.

Kouame, K.K.A., P.S. Bindraban, I.N. Kissiedu, K. El Mejahed, and W.K. Atakora. 2021. “Identifying Factors that Drive Yield Response of Maize to NPK Fertilization,” IFDC FERARI Policy Brief No. 7.

Krupnik, T.J., J. Timsina, K.P. Devkota, B.P. Tripathi, T.B. Karki, A. Urfels, Y.K. Gaihre, D. Choudhary, A.R. Beshir, V.P. Pandey, B. Brown, H. Gartaula, S. Shahrin, and Y.G. Ghimire. 2021. “Agronomic, Socioeconomic, and Environmental Challenges and Opportunities in Nepal’s Cereal-Based Farming Systems,” Advances in Agronomy, 170:155-288.

Nagarajan, L., T. Muesembi, and A. Fernando. 2021. “Existing and Potential Last Mile Delivery of Seeds,” a Feed the Future Global Supporting Seed Systems for Development (S34D) report. s34d_existing_and_potential_business_models_ on_last_mile_delivery_of_seeds.pdf (crs.org)

Pray, C., J. Anderson, S. Ledermann, and L. Nagarajan. 2021. “The Agricultural Innovation System in the Context of the 2020 Pandemic,” Policy Brief, Rutgers University Policy Research Consortium. http://ru-ftf.rutgers.edu/Policy_Briefs/Pray%20et%20al%202021.pdf

Saharawat, Y.S., M. Gill., M. Gathala, T.K. Karki, D.B.T. Wijeratne, S.S. Samiullah, N. Chaudhary, M.E. Haque, R.W. Bell, C.M. Parihar, R. K. Malik, and U. Singh. 2021. “Conservation Agriculture in South Asia: Present Status and Future Prospects,” IN Advances in Conservation Agriculture, Aamir Kassam (Ed.), Volume 3 – Adoption and Spread.

Senthilkumar, K., F.S. Sillo, J. Rodenburg, C. Dimkpa, K. Saito, I. Dieng, and P.S. Bindraban. 2021. “Rice Yield and Economic Response to Micronutrient Application in Tanzania,” Field Crops Research, 270:108201.

Singh, U., and A.J. Medford. 2021. “Green Decentralized Fertilizer Production,” Fertilizer Focus, March/April, 58-62.  

Vista, S.P., K. B. Karki, Y.K. Gaihre, S. Sharma, and B.R. Baral. 2021. “Soil Properties.” IN The Soils of Nepal, R.B. Ojha and D. Panday (Eds.), World Soils Book Series, Springer.

Fugice, Job. 2021. Laboratory Assessment and Capacity Building, Ghana.

Fugice, Job. 2021. Laboratory Assessment and Capacity Building, Nigeria.

Pray, C.E., L. Nagarajan, and A. Naseem. 2021“What is Driving the Growth of Private Agricultural R&D? Understanding the Role of Demand Diversification, IPRs, Technology, and Policy,” presented at the symposium on Privatization of Agricultural R&D and Inclusion of Smallholders in Emerging Markets: Recent Evidence, International Conference for Agricultural Economists (ICAE) Symposium, August 25 (online).

Saharawat, Y.S. 2021. “Innovation and Agricultural Reforms towards Farmers’ Prosperity,” presented at the 6th National Youth Convention virtual mode at PJTSAU (State Agricultural University), Hyderabad, Telangana, February 20-21.

Saharawat, Y.S. 2021. “Innovative Fertilizer and Fertilizer Management: Key for Conservation and Precision Agriculture based Sustainable Production Systems and Environment,” presented during the session on “Farm and Ecosystem Level Benefits of CA Systems to Society and Environment” at the 8th World Congress on Conservation Agriculture (8WCCA) Bern, Switzerland, June 20-24.

Vista, S.P., and Y.K. Gaihre. 2021. “Fertilizer Management for Horticultural Crops using Digital Soil Maps,” presented at the Tenth National Horticulture Workshop, Kathmandu, Nepal, February 28-March 1. Wendt, J.W., Q. Genga, and M. Ngunjiri. 2021. “Making Fertilizer Blends in Small Batches,” training video on blending multi-nutrient fertilizers for trials and demonstrations. https://youtu.be/zO7KzhHlunw.

Financial Statement


The following is an unaudited summary of financial information for the year ended December 31, 2021. The full financial statements and the independent auditors’ reports are available from IFDC upon request. IFDC’s audited financial statements are available online at this page.

Statement of Revenue & Expenses for the Year Ended December 31, 2021

Revenues & Gains2021 (U.S. $’000)2020 (U.S. $’000)
Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa1,102898
African Fertilizer and Agribusiness Partnership (AFAP)
African Development Bank189281
Board of Directors Donations4141
Dutch Embassies14,39318,102
International Fertilizer Association100167
International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI)456
Islamic Development Bank839674
Embassy of Ireland (Irish Aid)348402
GIZ Uganda497
Mercy Corps386
Millennium Challenge Account (MCA)426690
Netherlands Directorate-General for International Cooperation (DGIS)15,93013,304
OCP Foundation1,5662,044
RTI International108
Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC)2,311571
United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS-LIFT)941
U.S. Agency for International Development9,2888,620
Walmart Foundation, Inc.237290
Others3,8873,579
Total Revenues & Gains52,36250,604

Expenses 2021 (U.S. $’000)2020 (U.S. $’000)
Research and development3,9013,416
Field projects34,90936,331
Capacity building6,7333,256
Support activities6,7225,491
Total Expenses52,26548,494
Surplus/(loss)972,110

Balance Sheet for the Year Ended December 31, 2021

2021 (U.S. $’000)2020 (U.S. $’000)
Total assets26,32429,665
Total liabilities26,60030,038
Unrestricted net assets(276)(373)
Total Liabilities and Net Assets26,32429,665

Expenses by Function for the Year Ended December 31, 2021

Function2021 (U.S. $’000)2020 (U.S. $’000)
Personnel23,27420,596
Travel2,6621,744
Operations5,4804,559
Workshops & training6,7253,242
Equipment & supplies2,5582,422
Subcontracts & grants11,56615,931
Total Expenses52,26548,494

Publication Credits

Contributors: Prem Bindraban, Anna Goodwin, Julie Kohler, Matthew Miller, Latha Nagarajan, Upendra Singh, Kasta Staggs, James Thigpen
Executive Editor: James Thigpen
Editor: Julie Kohler
Graphics and GIFs: Meg Ross, Samantha Scannell, James Thigpen
Online Layout: James Thigpen
Production Consultant: Donna Venable

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All photographs, unless otherwise noted, are from the IFDC photo archives.